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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language. While most often used to change the style of web pages and user interfaces written inHTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XMLSVG and XUL. Along with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for many mobile applications.


Works Developed in this Platform:

Work titlesort descending Author Language Year
23:40 Das Gedächtnis Guido Grigat German 1997
6 Weird Questions asked in a Wired Way David Jhave Johnston English 2011
@DeleuzeGuattari, Rhiz-o-Mat, PoMoBot Anonymous English 1996
A Nervous System Jason Nelson English 2015
Afeeld Adam Sulzdorf-Liszkiewicz English 2017
Alexandrins au Greffoir Jacques Roubaud, Marcel Bénabou French 1985
Almas II Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida Portuguese
And the Robot Horse You Rode In On Anna Anthropy English 2014
Ann Coulter : Human Document William Poundstone English 2009
as valas abertas ++ des fossés ouverts ++ open ditches Álvaro Seiça English, French, Portuguese 2014
Automation | 自動化 Andrew Campana English, Japanese 2016
Baby Work Shu Lea Cheang 2012
Beim Bäcker Claudia Klinger German 1996
Beneath Floes Kevin Snow English 2015
Blackout Michael Valeur Danish 1997
Blind Side of a Secret Thomas Swiss, Nils Mühlenbruch, Yoshi Sodeoka, Motomichi Nakamura Dutch, English, French 2007
Bogen jeg ikke skriver Mai Misfeldt Danish 2001
C()n Du It Katarzyna Giełżyńska Polish 2012
Cantoos Dan Waber English 2010
Ceci n'est pas un Nike Giselle Beiguelman English, Portuguese 2002
Chess Poetry Aaron Tucker, Jody Miller English 2014
Code Kandy Sandrine Deumier English 2013
concrete_machine Johannes Auer English, German 2003
dadaoverload Beat Suter, René Bauer English 2017
Damascene Milorad Pavić English 1998
Der XLI. Libes-Kuß Quirinus Kuhlmann German 1671
Digital Ream Nick Montfort English 2007
e-lit? Gonzo Gaard 2016
Englen Michael Valeur Danish 1999
Enigma n Jim Andrews English, Finnish, Mandarin, Spanish (Castilian) 1998
Entropy Edition Johannes Heldén English, Swedish 2010
Everything Is Going To Be OK :) Chris Rodley, Andrew Burrell English 2013
Evolution Johannes Heldén, Håkan Jonson English, Swedish 2013
flâneur - tag the world Anders Sundnes Løvlie English, Norwegian (Bokmål) 2010
FreedomFone Alvar C.H. Freude German 2001
Give Me Your Light David Jhave Johnston English 2011
Goggi Jón Örn Loðmfjörð English, Finnish, Icelandic 2008
Gorgeous Twist Susanne Dirks Dahl English 2014
Hilfe! Susanne Berkenheger German 1999
Holes Graham Allen English 2006
House of Trust Stephanie Strickland, Ian Hatcher English 2014
Ink After Print Peter-Clement Woetmann Danish, English 2012
Inside the Distance Sharon Daniel English 2015
Into the Green Green Mud Miriam Suzanne English 2006
Kuffertene Morten Søndergaard Danish 2003
Kuryokhin: Second Life Michael Kurtov Russian 2015
La Resocialista Internacional Andreas Maria Jacobs Dutch, German, Greek, Portuguese, Serbian, Spanish (Castilian) 2008
Landskaber omkring digtet kompas Morten Søndergaard Danish 2000
Last Words Alan Bigelow 2012
Life 2.0 Ole-Petter Arneberg Norwegian (Bokmål) 2012


Version history (text): 

CSS was first proposed by Håkon Wium Lie on October 10, 1994. At the time, Lie was working with Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. Several other style sheet languages for the web were proposed around the same time, and discussions on public mailing lists and inside W3C resulted in the first W3C CSS Recommendation (CSS1) being released in 1996. In particular, Bert Bos' proposal was influential; he became co-author of CSS1 and is regarded as co-creator of CSS.


The first CSS specification to become an official W3C Recommendation is CSS level 1, published on December 17, 1996. Håkon Wium Lie and Bert Bos are credited as the original developers. Among its capabilities are support for

  • Font properties such as typeface and emphasis
  • Color of text, backgrounds, and other elements
  • Text attributes such as spacing between words, letters, and lines of text
  • Alignment of text, images, tables and other elements
  • Margin, border, padding, and positioning for most elements
  • Unique identification and generic classification of groups of attributes

The W3C no longer maintains the CSS 1 Recommendation.


CSS level 2 specification was developed by the W3C and published as a recommendation in May 1998. A superset of CSS 1, CSS 2 includes a number of new capabilities like absolute, relative, and fixed positioning of elements and z-index, the concept of media types, support for aural style sheets (which were later replaced by the CSS 3 speech modules) and bidirectional text, and new font properties such as shadows.

The W3C no longer maintains the CSS 2 recommendation.

CSS 2.1

CSS level 2 revision 1, often referred to as "CSS 2.1", fixes errors in CSS 2, removes poorly supported or not fully interoperable features and adds already-implemented browser extensions to the specification. To comply with the W3C Process for standardizing technical specifications, CSS 2.1 went back and forth between Working Draft status and Candidate Recommendation status for many years. CSS 2.1 first became a Candidate Recommendation on February 25, 2004, but it was reverted to a Working Draft on June 13, 2005 for further review. It returned to Candidate Recommendation on 19 July 2007 and then updated twice in 2009. However, since changes and clarifications were made, it again went back to Last Call Working Draft on 7 December 2010.

CSS 2.1 went to Proposed Recommendation on 12 April 2011. After being reviewed by the W3C Advisory Committee, it was finally published as a W3C Recommendation on 7 June 2011.

CSS 3"CSS3" redirects here. For other uses, see CSS3 (disambiguation).
Taxonomy and status of CSS3.

Unlike CSS 2, which is a large single specification defining various features, CSS 3 is divided into several separate documents called "modules". Each module adds new capabilities or extends features defined in CSS 2, preserving backward compatibility. Work on CSS level 3 started around the time of publication of the original CSS 2 recommendation. The earliest CSS 3 drafts were published in June 1999.[

Due to the modularization, different modules have different stability and statuses. As of June 2012, there are over fifty CSS modules published from the CSS Working Group., and four of these have been published as formal recommendations:


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Record posted by: 
Sumeya Hassan