Deeper into the Machine: The Future of Electronic Literature

Abstract (in English): 

N. Katherine Hayles's keynote address for the 2002 State of the Arts Symposium at UCLA. Hayles identifies two generations of electronic literature: mainly text-based works produces in Storyspace and Hypercard until about 1995-1997, and second-generation works, mainly authored in Director, Flash, Shockwave and XML in years after that. She identifies second-generation works as "fully multimedia" and notes a move "deeper into the machine." She then reads a number of second-generation works in the context of their computational specificity.

Publication note: Also published online in Culture Machine Vol. 5 (2003)

Platforms referenced:

Title Developers Year initiated
HyperCard 1987
Storyspace 1987
Adobe Director 2013
Flash 1996
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1996
Shockwave 1995
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Record posted by: 
Scott Rettberg